History of the 6 oldest human civilizations in the world
Earth's ancient civilizations span almost all continents except Antarctica. Even today historians have not been able to uncover the origin of the civilization. They believe that this unsolved mystery will never be solved. Because European researchers are busy pulling the pulse of history towards themselves.
Again, they have different opinions about these things. However, according to many American studies, the world's oldest civilizations were established in Iraq, Egypt, India, China, Peru, and Mexico between 4 and 3 thousand years before Christ. It is said that Mesopotamia was the holder and bearer of the oldest culture of human civilization. Not only cultural progress but also technological progress began there. Amanda Podany, professor emeritus of history at California State Polytechnic University, said, "Not only in the Middle East and the West but throughout the world, there are many sources for the details of modern life that go back thousands of years to the ancient cultures of their respective regions."
Leslie Kennedy, the author of The History, has compiled a list of some of the world's oldest civilizations after extensive research. This list has been made considering many unknown topics. Emphasis is placed on the contribution of technology, culture, and civilization to progress. The roots of world civilization that started in the Middle East went as far as China. No matter how much the Europeans tout the achievements of civilization, ancient cultures and technological advances were made in South America before Europe. However, the debate over civilization will last forever. But in the pursuit of teaching and learning generations, we must come to definite conclusions. The history of civilizations accepted by most historians must be accepted. Today we will gradually discuss some of the oldest civilizations of the world.
Mesopotamia is the oldest urban civilization in the world. Those who founded these civilizations established the rules of living on land. Civilization is driven by those who know how to research and write. Almost everyone knows this name. Because traces of the world's oldest civilization have been found in Mesopotamia. The name means 'between two rivers' in Greek. Mesopotamia, known as the cradle of civilization, was located in modern Iraq, Kuwait, and Syria. This civilization was modeled after the cultures that grew up in the Tigris and Euphrates river basins. Literacy, astronomy, agriculture, law, mathematics, architecture, and many other important fields flourished in the war-torn region. Mesopotamia was also home to the world's earliest cities, including Babylon, Assyria, and Akkad. Talen University history professor Kenneth Harl said, 'Mesopotamia is the oldest urban civilization in the world. Those who founded these civilizations established the rules of living on land. Civilization is driven by those who know how to research and write. Others only boast.'
It is clear in his statement that historians have left Mesopotamia as the throne of civilization because of education, culture, and technological progress. The cuneiform writing system used to establish the Code of Hammurabi is said to be one of Mesopotamia's greatest achievements. They introduced the base number system. Through which minutes are established in 60 seconds, hours in 60 minutes, and circles in 360 degrees. And it is these things that make Babylonian astronomy one of the most successful. By doing this, a year's account is launched in 12 months. Persians conquered Mesopotamia in 539 BC. Mesopotamia was ruled by hundreds of kings and empires for about 3,000 years. By this, many new civilizations of the world have been imported there. And they have spread worldwide and become more and more advanced. This also increased the status of Mesopotamia civilization. Mainly because of their reputation, the people there repeatedly fell into the abyss of the enemy. However, from 3500 BC to 323 BC, Mesopotamia was governed with complete independence and independent governance. Basically, the people of this civilization improved themselves by being repeatedly damaged by nature and enemy attacks.
The Egyptian civilization is said to be the most powerful empire in history. It is also called the Empire of Love. Egyptian civilization was located in the fertile Nile basin. From there, the civilization spread to today's Syria, and Sudan. The greatest proofs and monuments of this civilization are the pyramids and the tombs inside them. The bodies of ancient emperors were mummified there. The pyramids built by them, the preservation of corpses, and the technology inside them have given scientists the reputation of being the most advanced of these ancient empires. Because people before 3000 BC built such huge structures that amaze modern engineers.
Kenneth Hurl, author of the book Empires of the Steppes says, 'In 2600 BC, about 100,000 men worked together to build each pyramid.' However, they thrive in agriculture from the Nile Basin. Their way of life then revolved around agriculture. However, the Egyptians also left an impression of improvement in painting and sculpture. His contribution to mathematics is remembered with respect even today. Cubits, spans, pyramids, and many other structures originated from the basin of those sapphires. They invented the hieroglyphic pictorial writing system. Also, the Egyptians introduced the custom of 1 day in 24 hours and 356 days in a year. This civilization collapsed with the conquest of Egypt by Alexander the Great in 332 BC.
The history of the Indian subcontinent is old. The culture of this region is recognized around the world. Traditional religion was established in this region. And based on this religion, a unique civilization has developed here. The literature and history of this civilization were written in the Sanskrit language. The history of ancient India is so rich that even Alexander the Great came to conquer India in pursuit of its riches. But the area was so well defended that he returned empty-handed. Bharati civilization developed in the Indus River valley between modern India, Afghanistan, and Pakistan. India was home to sophisticated, organized town planning, uniform baked-brick houses, a grid structure, and improved sewage, and water supply systems.
India was so prosperous that enemies were always ready to take possession of it. But India managed to secure itself in the end. But ancient India fell due to natural calamities. Climate change, the drying up of rivers and many other reasons led to the collapse of this civilization. As a result, citizens gradually leave the region to live in other regions. And many kings and emperors took advantage of this opportunity to take over ancient India. The mixture of cultures in this subcontinent was also imported by those rulers.
The ancient Chinese are the only civilization to have developed completely in isolation from foreign enemies. Protected by the Himalayan Mountains, the Pacific Ocean, and the Gobi Desert, ancient Chinese civilization developed in the Yangtze River basin. This natural defense mechanism to stop the Mongols from the north kept the Chinese civilization going for thousands of years. The Great Wall is an example of the success of Chinese civilization. Its construction started from the beginning of that civilization, but it was officially finished in 220 BC. A total of 4 dynasties helped the development of ancient Chinese civilization. Because these dynasties ruled China for thousands of years. Those dynasties are Xia, Shang, Zhu, and Qin. Later their successors carried forward the Chinese civilization. The ancient Chinese civilization is credited with developing the decimal system, the abacus, the sundial, and the printing press.
But the bridges invented by the Chinese changed the course of history completely. They have made a mark of their achievements by building bridges over thousands of meters, on mountains, or in remote areas. The trade routes they built connecting the Yangtze River with other rivers are an example of modern maritime trade today. And so many historians consider the Chinese civilization to be the most successful civilization.
Peru The Inca civilization of ancient Peru consisted of people from several cultures, including the Chavin, Paracas, Nazca, Huari, Moche, and Inca. Archaeologists have found evidence of metallurgy, ceramics, advanced medicine, and modern agriculture. This Inca civilization spread from present-day Colombia to Chile. And its main center is the Andean city of Machu Picchu. Although the Incas did not directly invent a writing system, they used pictures and symbols.
The people of that civilization expanded agriculture by building paved roads in the region's rugged plains. That civilization developed in 1200 BC. And the people of this civilization were among the best because they developed such advanced communication systems at that time. However, the people of this civilization were slowly destroyed by various diseases imported from Spain. The Inkaras were not very diligent about their health system.
Maya civilization still exists across large swaths of the Americas. This civilization was established in Guatemala around 1200 BC. From there, the Maya people spread to Mexico and Central America. We are still enjoying the benefits of their contribution to agriculture. The people of that civilization made crops such as corn, beans, vanilla, avocados, peppers, squash, and cotton important crops. They also dabbled in pyramid-style temples, intricate pottery, stone monuments, turquoise jewelry, and other fine arts.
Researchers believe that the first written calendar in history can be found in the ruins of the Maya civilization. And from this, it can be understood that the Mayans had to make great progress in mathematics, hieroglyphics, architecture, and astronomy. The famous Aztecs, descendants of the Mayans, founded Tenochtitlan in 1325 on a small island in Lake Texcoco that is today's Mexico City. Researchers are still researching their 365-day solar calendar. The use of human sacrifice and bloodshed was widespread in their writings. In 1519, the Aztecs, the last of the Mayans, were defeated by Spanish forces led by Hernán Cortez.