Egyptian Civilization (Episode 1): Governance and Religious Beliefs
Egyptian civilization is one of the oldest civilizations in the world. Ancient Egypt was the world's most advanced civilization in terms of finance, luxury, wealth, industrial production, army, and technology. They knew science like pyramids and mummies thousands of years before Christ was born. At the same time, the fertile silt of the Nile river made their lands suitable for agriculture. As a result, they were self-sufficient on the one hand and unrivaled on the other. The ancient Egyptians named their country 'Kemet' which means black clay. Originally, it was named so because of the presence of black silt in the area around the Nile. In the evolution of time, Kemmet took the name Egypt. Interestingly, The Arabic meaning of Egypt is 'country'. Therefore, Egypt means a country! Later, Egypt became globally known as Egypt through the Greeks. Even now the word Egypt is still used in their official name.
Egyptian civilization developed based on Nile Water. The silt carried out by the Nile river played a key role in expanding agriculture here. That is why the historic Herodotus (who is also known as the father of history) said, "Egypt is the gift of Nile". The Nile originated from Lake Victoria. From there, different regions crossed to lay to the Mediterranean. Egypt is located on the coast of the Mediterranean surrounded by the continent of Asia, Africa, and Europe. To the north of Egypt are the Mediterranean, the Red Sea on the east, the Sahara Desert on the west, and Sudan another African country in the south.
Religious Beliefs of Ancient Egypt
The ancient Egyptians believed in the Gods. They believed that worldly life was part of eternal life. On earth's life, they tried to spend their lives understanding the balance of the world. The philosophy of disciplined life and religious beliefs of Egyptians is called Mat. Mat is a true, beautiful, and disciplined life. According to ancient Egyptian mythology, there was once nothing but infinite dark water (noo). The soil was born from that water, whose name is Benben. On that soil, there was the supreme God Amun-Ra. God began to feel lonely in the midst of this vacuum. Then the God of the wind Shu was born from the spit of the supreme God, and the goddess Tifnut of humidity was born from vomiting. Once Shu and Tiffnut were lost. To find them, God releases his eyes to find them. Shortly afterward they were found. God was so delighted to find their own children that tears poured through his eyes. The tears of God created men and women! People came but where would they be now? Shu and Tefnut made love and gave birth to two children. One is the god of the earth, Geb and the other is the goddess of the sky Noot. In this way, the earth and the human originated from the dark, chaotic water in Egyptian mythology.
Ancient Egypt was divided into many small towns, called "Nom". Northern Egypt was also called Lower Egypt and The South was also called Upper Egypt. It is believed that by 3150 BC, under Pharaoh Menes I, civilization literally took shape through the political unification of about 40 cities of Upper Egypt and Lower Egypt. Its capital was called Memphis. The dynasty in Egypt began mainly from that time. Since then, at different times in history, different dynasties have established their rule in the country of the Nile. The king of ancient Egypt was also called Pharaoh. The word Pharaoh comes from the word "par-o". It means house or building. It is believed that the Pharaohs lived in huge palaces, so they have been named so. The list of Egyptian dynasties is quite long. For about 3,000 years, this civilization was bright in its glory, consisting of 31 dynasties and more than 300 Pharaohs.
The Pharaohs simultaneously served as kings, gods, judges, chief priests, and chiefs of the army. Although the Pharaohs usually changed the throne in the lineage, there is evidence of some foreigners and women also being Pharaohs at different times. "Taharqa" was one of the foreign Pharaohs and sat on the throne when he was only 26 years old. One of the female Pharaohs was "Nefertiti", who is believed to have been anointed pharaoh after her husband's death. In addition, Queen Cleopatra's reputation was worldwide. Although King Ptolemy was on the throne, the royal work was then conducted at the hands of Cleopatra. Because of the long list of dynasties, Egypt's rule can be divided into several parts.
Prehistoric Egypt (3100BC)
On the shores of the Nile, there found some engravings about ten thousand years old. The engraving image reflects the agriculture-based Egyptian society. The time indicates that prehistoric Egypt was largely dependent on agriculture. Due to excess grazing, some of the Nile's banks were turned into barren land, known as the Sahara Desert today. However, before that, the agrarian tribe of Egypt was establishing an agro-based Egypt. It was during this time that the new era of the Nile emerged. The pre-dynast tradition was developed in Egypt during contemporary times.
Ancient times (3100BC to 332AD)
The rulers of ancient times were original of Egyptian blood. This era is essentially the golden age of the history of Egypt. In the meantime, they became globally strong. At the beginning of ancient times, the journey began with the integration of higher and lower Egypt. During this time, the civilization and culture of Egypt were widely developed, and enhanced by going through changing and reforms. The religious belief in Egypt could not be avoided. Because, at the last phase of the ancient age, the influence of the outside culture gradually began to affect Egypt. Especially the influence of the Greeks and Romans began to be distinguishable. Then, when Egyptian rule was left in the hand of the Arabs, the polytheistic Egyptian religious faith went to complete extinction.
Rule of Outsiders
After Ramses III, the throne of the Pharaohs began to weaken. Foreign powers repeatedly attacked Egypt. For a long time from 1000–800 BC, Libya repeatedly invaded Egypt. At one stage of these long-running attacks, the Egyptians bowed down in front of them. The Libyans seized the throne of the Pharaohs. Around 700 BC, the Egyptians tried to regain independence, but the sun quickly set at the hands of the Persians. Egypt flourished economically mainly because of the fertile soil of the Nile. It was a blessing for the Egyptians on the one hand and a cause of panic on the other. Because many outsiders had an eye on Egypt's wealth. In the meantime, there was a decline had been observed among the rulers of Egypt.
The internal battle for the Egyptian throne provoked both domestic and external enemies. As a result, there have been frequent transfers of power in Egypt's history. Sometimes The Libyans, sometimes the Assyrians and sometimes the Macedonian rulers sat on the throne of Egypt. After that, the Pharaohs of Egypt were held hostage for a long time by the dominance of the Romans. Then in 31 BC, when the Romans included Egypt as a province, the Pharaoh's rule virtually came to an end. After that, the power of Egypt was finally settled in the hands of the Arabs, turning into the hands of the Romans and Persians. After nearly 900 years of rule, Egypt's authority fell into the hands of the Ottomans of Turkey. Napoleon then overthrew ottoman rule and seized the power of Egypt. After a short time, they had to leave the country of the Nile. On June 18, 1953, Egypt emerged as the People's Republic. It became the today's Arab Republic of Egypt.